Data processing refers to the process of performing specific operations on a set of data or a database. A database is an organized collection of facts and information, such as records on employees, inventory, customers, and potential customers. As these examples suggest, numerous forms of data processing exist and serve diverse applications in the business setting. Data processing primarily is performed on information systems, a broad concept that encompasses computer systems and related devices. At its core, an information system consists of input, processing, and output. In addition, an information system provides for feedback from output to input. The input mechanism (such as a keyboard, scanner, microphone, or camera) gathers and captures raw data and can be either manual or automated. Processing, which also can be accomplished manually or automatically, involves transforming the data into useful outputs. This can involve making comparisons, taking alternative actions, and storing data for future use. Output typically takes the form of reports and documents that are used by managers. Feedback is utilized to make necessary adjustments to the input and processing stages of the information system.